Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals

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中国有色金属学报

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第30卷    第2期    总第251期    2020年2月

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文章编号:1004-0609(2020)-02-0411-10
微生物浸铀研究进展
文旭祥,孙占学,周义朋,徐玲玲,刘顺亮

(东华理工大学 核资源与环境国家重点实验室,南昌 330013)

摘 要: 随着对天然铀需求的不断增加,低品位及难浸铀矿的开采日渐受到关注,微生物溶浸是解决此类铀资源开发的重要技术之一。浸铀工艺主要为堆浸和地浸,大量的室内及野外微生物浸铀试验研究表明,微生物浸铀技术应用于工业生产是可行的。浸矿微生物经过诱导驯化,其耐受性可以得到明显提升,能适应高氟铀矿石、低温以及强酸等环境条件,如可在氟含量为2~3.98 g/L的尾液中良好生长,在8~10 ℃的低温条件下能保持良好的活性,也能较好地生长于pH为1.2~2.0甚至低至0.6的强酸环境中。驯化诱导是提高菌种对浸矿环境适应性的通常的技术途径,采用土著菌并适当加以驯化培养,往往能获得对本土矿区适应能力更强的优良菌种。研究表明混合菌种之间存在协同作用,浸矿效果优于单一菌种的。微生物浸铀的间接作用是明确的,但微生物直接作用铀矿物的观点目前仍存在争论。从微生物浸铀机理、耐受性研究、菌种培养选育和微生物浸铀技术的实践应用研究4个方面,对近20年的成果进行了综述,就微生物浸铀尤其是在地浸方面的发展进行了分析与展望。

 

关键词: 微生物浸铀;浸矿机理;耐受性;菌种培养

Advances in research on microbial leaching of uranium
WEN Xu-xiang, SUN Zhan-xue, ZHOU Yi-peng, XU Ling-ling, LIU Shun-liang

State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China

Abstract:With the increasing demand of natural uranium, the exploitation of low-grade or complex uranium ores has been attracting more and more attention. The biological leaching is one of the important techniques for exploitation of such uranium resources. At present, heap leaching and in-situ leaching are the main processes for uranium recovery. Numbers of laboratory experiments and field trails show that the microbial leaching is a feasible technique for industrial production of uranium from low-grade or refractory ores. The tolerance of microorganism which has been mutated and acclimated can be improved obviously, and it can be adapted to high fluorine uranium ores, low temperature and high acidity environments. For example, the acclimated bacteria can grow well in mining tails with fluorine content of 2-3.98 g/L, under the condition of low temperature of 8 ℃, and in solution of which pH is 1.2-2.0 or even in a higher acidity solution (pH is low to 0.6). Acclimation and induction are common technical ways to improve the adaptability of bacteria species to leaching environment, and indigenous bacterias often have better adaptability to native mining areas. The results also show that there is a synergistic effect between mixed strains and the leaching effect is better than that of single strain. The indirect action of microbial on uranium ore is clear, but the view of direct action of microorganism on uranium ore is still controversial. The mechanism of uranium leaching by microorganism, the study of tolerance, the breeding of bacteria and practical application research of microbial leaching uranium technology were reviewed, especially in the past 20 years. The development of bioleaching of uranium, especially in-situ leaching, was prospected.

 

Key words: bioleaching of uranium; mechanism of uranium leaching; microorganism tolerance; microbial strain culture

ISSN 1004-0609
CN 43-1238/TG
CODEN: ZYJXFK

ISSN 1003-6326
CN 43-1239/TG
CODEN: TNMCEW

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